Poor regulation encouraging bankers to finance risky projects in the expectation that they would enjoy the profits, if any, while the government would cover any significant losses. At the beginning of , the Thai government forecast as usual, strong export growth for that year of 18 percent. In short, developed world financial markets were in much better shape in than financial markets in East Asia prior to the Asian crises. As just noted, our markets could suffer severe additional hits. The explanation for Indonesia's currency's devaluation comes primarily from the actions of domestic and foreign savers and borrowers. The country had relatively open trade and financial markets that attracted large amounts of foreign capital in the s. Before the crisis there was a massive borrowing in dollars.
The Onset of the East Asian Financial Crisis
The Indonesia Bank Restructuring Agency was established to bypass the central bank and to enable a more business-oriented approach to bank restructuring. The best prospect is neighboring countries: It has held its exchange rate, encouraged Hong Kong to do so as well, reduced interest rates, maintained solid growth while bringing inflation under control, and contributed to the new financial packages despite its low level of per capita income. The surge of funds led to upward pressures on exchange rates, which in turn worsened trade deficits. A further sharp fall of its exchange rate could trigger a new currency spiral, including perhaps in the "strong core" and thus throughout the world. The current cases are only the latest reminders that such crises inevitably occur from time to time.
How the IMF helped create and worsen the Asian financial crisis
Nor would private investors keep coming, with countless alternative opportunities around the world, if the Fund requires them to share the costs of adjustment programs as it must. Political and economic reforms over the seven years of the crisis were grafted onto this existing structure. Many businesses were "sunset industries" in which companies churned out the same products year after year with less profit instead of reinvesting in more modern equipment. Their willingness to do so appears to have stemmed in part from a perception that the governments of these nations stood ready to intervene to forestall bank failures. International Finance and Macroeconomics. The nature of these exports had also shifted in recent years from basic materials and products such as textiles to complex and increasingly high technology products, such as automobiles, semi-conductors, and consumer electronics.
Private-sector involvement in crisis resolution was held to be vital, given the enormous volume of international capital flows. The closure of the 16 banks some controlled by Suharto's cronies triggered a run on other banks. Capital account regimes of emerging economies are much more liberal today both for residents and non-residents than in the s. But these agencies have, to varying degrees, struggled and have not been able to set Indonesia in a new direction. These bouts of instability did not inflict severe damage because they were temporary, short-lived dislocations caused by shifts in market sentiments without any fundamental departure from the policy of easy money.